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AntiDiarrheals Drug Actions Adverse Reactions and Contraindication

Mode Of Actions
Antidiarrheals decrease intestinal peristalsis, which is usually increased when the patient has diarrhea.Examples of these drugs include difenoxin with atropine (Motofen),diphenoxylate with atropine (Lomotil), and loperamide (Imodium).

Indication to Uses

Antidiarrheals are used in the treatment of diarrhea

Adverse Reactions
Diphenoxylate use may result in anorexia, nausea,vomiting, constipation, rash, dizziness, drowsiness,sedation, euphoria, and headache. This drug is a narcotic-related drug that has no analgesic activity but has sedative and euphoric effects and drug dependence potential. To discourage abuse, it is combined with atropine (an anticholinergic or cholinergic blocking drug), which causes dry mouth and other mild adverse minimal adverse reactions are associated with its use.Occasionally, abdominal discomfort, pain, and distention have been seen, but these symptoms also occur with severe diarrhea and are difficult to distinguish
from an adverse drug reaction

These drugs are contraindicated in patients whose diarrhea is associated with organisms that can harm the intestinal mucosa (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella) and in patients with pseudomembranous colitis, abdominal pain of unknown origin, and obstructive jaundice.The antidiarrheal drugs are contraindicated in children younger than 2 years.The antidiarrheal drugs are used cautiously in patients with severe hepatic impairment or inflammatory bowel disease. Antidiarrheals are classified as Pregnancy Category B drugs and should be used cautiously during pregnancy and lactation.
The antidiarrheal drugs cause an additive CNS depression when administered with alcohol, antihistamines, narcotics, and sedatives or hypnotics. There are additive cholinergic effects when administered with other drugs having anticholinergic activity, such as antidepressants or antihistamines. Concurrent use of the antidiarrheals with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor increases the risk of a hypertensive crisis.
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Ditulis oleh: NCLEX EXAM - Monday, 4 July 2011